Jeremias holds that Luke’s brief mention of Jesus’ resurrection appearance to Peter in Luke 24:34 is of even greater antiquity than is 1 Corinthians 15:5, which would make this an extremely early witness to these appearances.^34 Dodd and Bultmann also note the connections between the fact that Peter appears in the references in both Luke 24:34 and 1 Corinthians 15:5.^35 A previously mentioned tradition, 2 Timothy 2:8, presents another contrast by linking the Jesus who descended from David with the same person who was raised from the dead. Not only is Jesus’ resurrection proclaimed as an event of history, but early creeds also assert that, on the basis of this event, Jesus’ claims were justified. In particular, it is said that the resurrection revealed the uniqueness of Jesus’ person.

That Romans 1:3–4 is an ancient pre-Pauline creed is shown by the parallelism of the clauses,^36 which is especially seen in the contrast between Jesus as both the son of David and the Son of God.^37 The same Jesus who was born in space and time was raised from the dead.^38 This creed proclaims that Jesus was shown to be the Son of God, Christ (or Messiah) and Lord and vindicated as such by his resurrection from the dead.^39 Cullmann adds that redemption and Jesus’ final exaltation were also included in this significant creedal affirmation.^40 Such an encompassing

32 Drane, Introducing the NT, p. 99.

33 See the influential treatment by Dodd, Apostolic Preaching, pp. 17–31; cf. Craig’s overview of the debate, pp. 36–38.

Joachim Jeremias, “Easter: The Earliest Tradition and the Earliest Interpretation,” p. 306.

35 C.H. Dodd, “Risen Christ,” p. 125; Bultmann, Theology, vol. 1, p. 45.

36 Cf. Neufeld, Confessions, pp. 7, 50; Pannenberg, Jesus, pp. 118, 283, 367; Dodd, Apostolic Preaching, p. 14; Bultmann, Theology, vol. 1, p. 27; vol. 2, p. 121; Fuller, Foundations, pp. 187, 189.