Third, it is likely that the creed is organized in a stylized, parallel form, thereby providing a further indication of the oral and confessional nature of this material.^48

Fourth, there are indications that there may be a Semitic source, such as the use of the Aramaic “Cephas” for Peter (v. 5), hence pointing to an earlier source before Paul’s Greek translation.^49

Fifth, other indications of ancient Hebrew narration include the triple usage of “and that” along with the two references to the Scripture being filfilled.^50

How early is this creed? Numerous critical theologians have endeavored to answer this important question, with very striking results. Ulrich Wilckens asserts that this creed “indubitably goes back to the oldest phase of all in the history of primitive Christianity.”^51 Joachim Jeremias calls it “the earliest tradition of all.”^52 Concerning a more exact time, it is very popular to date this creed in the mid AD

45 Fuller, Resurrection Narratives, p. 10; Wilckens, Resurrection, p. 2; Bultmann, Theology, vol. 1, p. 293; Dodd, Apostolic Preaching, pp. 13–14; “Risen Christ,” p. 125; Neufeld, Confessions, p. 27; Brown, Bodily Resurrection, p. 81.

46 Cullmann, Early Church, p. 64; Fuller, Resurrection Narratives, p. 10; Marxsen, Resurrection, p. 80; Weber, The Cross, p. 59.

47 Jeremias, Eucharistic Words, pp. 101–102.

48 See especially Fuller, Resurrection Narratives, pp. 11–12; Weber, The Cross, p. 59; Jeremias, Eucharistic Words, pp. 102–103.

49 Jeremias, in particular, provides a list of such Semitisms (Eucharistic Words, pp. 102– 103). See also Pannenberg, Jesus, p. 90; Fuller, Resurrection Narratives, p. 11; Foundations, p. 160; Weber, The Cross, p. 59.

50 Lapide, Resurrection, p. 98.