That Romans 1:3–4 is an ancient pre-Pauline creed is shown by the parallelism of the clauses,^36 which is especially seen in the contrast between Jesus as both the son of David and the Son of God.^37 The same Jesus who was born in space and time was raised from the dead.^38 This creed proclaims that Jesus was shown to be the Son of God, Christ (or Messiah) and Lord and vindicated as such by his resurrection from the dead.^39 Cullmann adds that redemption and Jesus’ final exaltation were also included in this significant creedal affirmation.^40 Such an encompassing