13 See G. O’Collins, Living Vatican II: The 21st Council for the 21st Century (Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, 2006), 59 60; and S. R. Holman, The Beggars Are Dying: Beggars and Bishops in Roman Cappadocia (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001).

Finally, Augustine and Luther are at their best on this theme. As we documented, Augustine emphasized that the external rituals performed by priests should be matched by the inner obedience and sacrifice of their lifestyle. True sacrifice, for Augustine, was always found in a life given to God in faith and love. Luther puts matters more vividly. Introducing a specific detail from the rite of priestly ordination, he draws out the pastoral implications of being anointed and writes: ‘beyond other Christians, they [priests] are anointed on their fingers, not so much for the purpose of being worthy to touch the sacrament of the body of Christ as to deal gently with the matter of the same sacrament: that is, with the people of Christ.’14

14 Lectures on Hebrews (Heb. 5: 1), in LW xxix. 170.

With this image we arrive at our final thesis, and the question: how do ordained priests participate in Christ’s priesthood when they celebrate the Eucharist? Unquestionably, there are less controversial issues that belong here: for instance, about the ‘invocation (epiclesis)’ of the Holy Spirit at the Eucharist and the Trinitarian nature of the Eucharist. In BEM the Faith and Order Commission dealt clearly and helpfully with both matters. In its Report on the Process and its Responses, the Commission drew matters together: ‘in the Holy Spirit, Christ comes to us, clothed in his mighty acts, and gathers us in his self-offering to the Father.’15

15 Faith and Order Commission, Baptism, Eucharist and Ministry 1982 1990, 116.