7 In Rom. 16: 1 Paul names Phoebe as a ‘deacon/helper’. 8 On ‘prophets’, ‘teachers’, and other ministries in Paul’s letters, see J. D. G. Dunn, The Theology of Paul the Apostle (London: T. & T. Clark, 2003), 580 93.

But how they originated, what rites made them into ‘overseers’ and ‘helpers’, and what they did is left obscure. In another letter he notes that, within the whole Body of Christ, God has appointed apostles, prophets, teachers, workers of miracles, healers, helpers, administrators, and speakers in various ‘kinds of tongues’ (1 Cor. 12: 8–12, 28–30; see Rom. 12: 4–8).8 These eight ministries in 1 Corinthians 12: 28 become five in another list of ministries for building up the Body of Christ: ‘The gifts he [Christ] gave were that some would be apostles, some prophets, some evangelists, some pastors and teachers’ (Eph. 4: 11). The list now includes the ‘evangelists’ or official messengers/preachers of the good news (see Rom. 10: 8–17). ‘Prophets’ are mentioned not only by Paul but also by Luke, who records details of their activity in the emerging Church (Acts 11: 27; 13: 1; 15: 32; 21: 10). At least for Paul, ‘prophets’ seem to have been something like inspired or gifted preachers. The Acts of the Apostles also reports ‘elders/presbyters’, who along with ‘the apostles’ lead the Jerusalem church under James (Acts 11: 30; 15: 2, 4, 6, 22–3; 16: 4). Used of authority figures in Judaism, ‘elders’ came to designate officials in Christian communities, without Luke or anyone else indicating how that happened. Early in Acts, Paul and Barnabas are said by Luke to have installed ‘elders’ in local churches (Acts 14: 23). Yet neither in the certainly authentic letters of Paul nor in the Deutero-Paulines does the apostle ever speak of ‘presbyters’ as such in the churches to which he writes, let alone install such persons. When Paul visits Jerusalem for the last time he meets ‘all the elders’ and James, but neither ‘apostles’ nor ‘the Twelve’ are mentioned (Acts 21: 18). Earlier, Acts 6: 1–6 has reported the appointment of seven to ‘serve (diakonein)’ in administering the Jerusalem church. One of them (Stephen), however, works wonders and acts as an outstanding speaker (6: 8–10) before being put on trial and martyred.