58 Ibid., 20:11–14, 25–34.

59 Grant, Gnosticism and Early Christianity, p. 109.

60 Ibid., pp. 109–112; Jonas, Gnostic Religion40, 199–205; Frederick Wisse, “Introduction” in James Robinson, The Nag Hammadi Library, p. 98; Walter Baur, Orthodoxy and Heresy in Earliest Christianity, p. 49.

61 The Apocryphon of John1:5–17.

The Gospel of Thomas

This book describes itself in the opening statement as “the secret sayings which the living Jesus spoke.”^62 Grant notes that this collection of teachings thereby purports to be the words of the risen Jesus, thus accounting for the almost complete absence of statements concerning his birth, life and death.^63