Jesus (71)appeared before Pilate (creeds: Acts 3:13; 13:28) and (72)made a good confession (creed: 1 Tim. 6:13), which may have been an affirmation of his messiahship. (73)After being persecuted (Gospel of Truth) and (74)as a result of his teachings (Lucian), (75)Jesus was put to death (creeds: 1Co 15:3; Acts 3:13–15; 13:27–29; 1 Pet. 3:18; Rom. 4:25; 1 Tim 2:6; Gospel of Thomas; Treatise on Resurrection). He died (76)at the hands of the Roman procurator Pontius Pilate (Talmud; Ignatius), (77)during the local rule of Herod (Ignatius). (78)More specifically, Jesus was crucified (Josephus; Talmud; Lucian; Gospel of Truth; Acts of Pilate; creeds: Acts 2:23, 36; 4:10; 5:30; 10:39; Phil. 2:6f.; Ignatius; Barnabas; Justin), (79)by wicked men (creed: Acts 2:23), (80)in the city of Jerusalem (creed: Acts 13:27–28; cf. 10:39), (81)during the reign of Roman Emperor Tiberius (Tacitus; Phlegon).

Even some details of Jesus’ crucifixion are provided by these sources. (82)The event reportedly occurred on Passover Eve (Talmud). (83)Victims of crucifixion were apparently made to carry at least a portion of their crosses to the site, which sometimes resulted in stumbling to the ground (shroud). (84)Jesus had his wrists and feet nailed to the cross (cf. Tacitus; Gospel of Truth; Acts of Pilate; Ignatius; Justin; cf. Shroud; Yohanan). (85)Crucifixion could also involve the administering of a coup de grace, such as breaking the victim’s legs (cf. Yohanan with ancient historical reports) in order to hasten death by asphyxiation, (86)which is the normal cause of death in crucifixion, as revealed by the need for the person to push up and down in order to breathe (cf. shroud; Yohanon with modern medical studies).