Orant A representation of the Mother of God or a Saint with arms extended and hands raised to shoulder level or higher in a gesture of prayer

Pantocrator Christ represented as Ruler of Everything

Proskynesis Gesture of prostration and reverence

Quinisext A 7th century council complementary to the use of icon

Theotokos Mary, Mother of God

Theosophy A belief in intuitive knowledge of the Divine which is superior to that of historical religions or of philosophy or empirical science

Zoographe An iconographer, a painter


Holy Bible, New International Version. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1978

Attwater, Donald, The Churches Of The East, Volume II: Churches Not In Communion With Rome. Milwaukee, WI: The Bruce Pub. Co., 1962.

Auxentios, Hieromonk. The Iconic and Symbolic in Orthodox Iconography. [An essay taken from a presentation at the Graduate Atheological Union, Berkeley CA] 1987. http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/general/orth_icon.htm (read 15 pages)

Baggley, John. Doors of Perception: Icons And Their Spiritual Significance. Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir’s Seminary Press, 1988. (skimmed/read 90 pages)

Barasch, Moshe. Icon: Studies in the History of an Idea. New York, NY: New York University Press, 1992. (read 25 pages)

Begbie, Jeremy (Ed.). Beholding the Glory: Incarnation Through The Arts. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2000. (read 50 pages)

Calian, Carnegie S., Icon And Pulpit: The Protestant-Orthodox Encounter. Philadelphia, PA: Westminster Press, 1968. (read 85 pages)

Calian, Carnegie S., Theology Without Boundaries: Encounters of Eastern Orthodoxy and Western Tradition. Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1992 (read 25 pages)

Cavarnos, Constantine. The Functions of Icons. Chapter III from Orthodox Iconography (Belmont, MA: Institute for Modern Greek and Byzantine Studies, 1992 [1977]), pp. 30-35.
[http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/general/icon_function.htm] (read 5 pages)