Despite the lack of structure, there are certain themes running through the Book that reappear at various points. The New Oxford Annotated Apocrypha identifies ten major recurring topics:

1. The Creation (16:24–17:24, 18:1–14; 33:7–15; 39:12–35; and 42:15–43:33);
2. Death (11:26–28; 22:11–12; 38:16–23; and 41:1–13);
3. Friendship (6:5–17; 9:10–16: 19:13–17; 22:19–26: 27:16–21; and 36:23–37:15);
4. Happiness (25:1–11; 30:14–25; and 40:1–30);
5. Honor and shame (4:20–6:4; 10:19–11:6; and 41:14–42:8);
6. Money matters (3:30–4:10; 11:7–28; 13:1–14:19; 29:1–28; and 31:1–11);
7. Sin (7:1–17; 15:11–20; 16:1–17:32; 18:30–19:3; 21:1–10; 22:27–23:27; and 26:28–28:7);
8. Social justice (4:1–10; 34:21–27; and 35:14–26);
9. Speech (5:6,9-15; 18:15–29; 19:4–17; 20:1–31; 23:7–15; 27:4–7; 27:11–15; and 28:8–26); and
10. Women (9:1–9; 23:22–27; 25:13–26:27; 36:26–31; and 42:9–14).