A second series of remarks is necessary at this point. We have seen, particularly with the third point, that the general aim of the reforms was a positive one: improve popular piety and strengthen the Church. But the problem lies in the logic and methods used to support and implement the reforms.

Papal monarchy and de facto infallibility drew a wave of criticisms which in fact weakened the Church internally precisely while this monarchy was being built up.

Anti-Gregorians correctly perceived this danger. The setting apart of the clergy and the attempts to purify it of all immorality in effect led to the spread of anti-clericalism. Finally, the attempt to center religious life around features that had traditionally belonged to monasticism also resulted in certain groups denying all sacraments institutionalized by the Catholic Church, including the Eucharist.