We have seen in the previous post some significant characteristics of the Gregorian reforms. Several observations can be made concerning these reforms, both in the three areas separately identified and as a whole.

The first observation is that these reforms displaced a number of long-standing practices. By claiming that the See of Rome was the sole and unaccountable head of the Church, the Gregorians opened the doors to dissent and controversies coming from anti-Gregorians, who maintained that even the person of the Pope could deprive himself of grace by wrongful acts. Papal theory in effects brought about divisions within the western Church.