The third area in which the Gregorians applied reform was in what we can call affective participation. This is based on the monastic example of poverty and virtue, an example itself rooted in the example of the Gospels. Through poverty and a virtuous life, the participant, i.e. everyone, could achieve union of heart with God. Such concept would be perpetuated after the official end of the Gregorian reform and can be seen, for example, in the life of Francis of Assisi. But it would also give rise to less conformist movements, such as Catharism in southern France and northern Italy or the movement of Peter Waldo in Lyons and Northern Italy.