The first problem is that Moscow wanted to be differentiated from Constantinople, which was conquered but not vaporized. On the contrary, Constantinople was still the place of the Patriarch, spiritual leader of all the enslaved nations according to the role Mohammed recognized and assigned to the Patriarch. Moscow could not be named or see herself as the “New Rome”. Thus Moscow found a resort in the numerical way, and invented the “third” Rome theory.

The other problem is a most serious mistake, and is based on the previous. For a new Rome to exist, an old one is needed. That means, the new Rome can exist only if the old Rome decides so. Constantinople was not a city that decided one day to be called “New Rome”. Constantinople was born in the decision of the Roman empire to transfer the capital in the East and embrace the Christian faith.

Instead of watching and understanding the historical motions, Moscow hurried to exploit the fall of Constantinople in order to promote her own strength. Moscow wanted the glory of Byzantium without the nature of Byzantium, and it ended by founding the first openly, persistently and violently atheist regime in Europe. Even western Europeans, tormented by Papacy for centuries, did not end to such an achievement! Russia’s disdain of history and will to self-power explain why she failed to support the enslaved Orthodox nations, at a time when all of them had their hope in God and in Russia! She could be their comfort and their leader, if she wasn’t attracted only by a narrow and sad image of herself.

A spiritual reality is alive and present even if only one person lives in it. For Byzantium to emerge again as a political entity this is not sufficient. We can have many saints, and no Byzantium. Of course, the task of any Orthodox state which doesn’t exist in the world as a stranger, would be to support social cohesion in faith. Faith wants also freedom, thinking, justice…, and all of these can be supported by a state. Yet for Byzantium to emerge again as a political entity these are not enough. They can support the spiritual life of Byzantium, but not the political.