Already after the political fall of Byzantium, Russia started to develop the theory of the “third Rome” seeing itself as the successor of Constantinople. This was a mistake, a misconception of the whole history of the Christian world, and it was followed by more mistakes, most important among them being the servile indiscriminate westernization of Russia and the inhuman government of the czars, that led to the famous Russian nihilism and the recent establishment of the soviet communism, of one of the most cruel totalitarian and anti-spiritual regimes in history.