Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, by Carol Dweck first came to my attention a few years ago in a fascinating invention session on education with my friend Nathan Myrhvold, similar to the sessions Malcolm Gladwell described in his article “In the Air: Who says big ideas are rare?” Dweck’s research had a big impact on our thinking that day.

And in the years since, Dweck and her research have helped my foundation colleagues and me understand more about the attitudes and habits that allow some students to persevere in school despite big challenges.