During that period, as in the Book of Judith, there was no king in Judah since the legitimate sovereign, Manasseh of Judah, was being held captive in Nineveh at this time. As a typical policy of the time, all leadership was thus transferred in the hands of the High Priest of Israel in charge, which was Joakim in this case (Judith 4:6). The profanation of the temple (Judith 4:3) might have been that under king Hezekiah (see 2 Chronicles, xxix, 18–19), who reigned between c. 715 and 686 BCE.
Although Judith and Ashurbanipal’s campaigns show direct parallels, the main incident of Judith’s intervention has never been recorded in official history. Also, the reasons for the name changes are difficult to understand, unless the text was transmitted without character names before they were added by the Greek translator, who lived centuries later. Moreover, Ashurbanipal is never referenced by name in the Bible, except perhaps for the corrupt form “Asenappar” in 2 Chronicles and Ezra 4:10 or the anonymous title “The King of Assyria” in the 2 Kings, which means his name might have never been recorded by Jewish historians.
Identification of Nebuchadnezzar with Tigranes the Great