As David Bell expresses, “The rise of the concepts of nation and patrie initially took place as Europeans came to perceive a radical separation between God and the world, searched for ways to discern and maintain terrestrial order in the face of God’s absence, and struggled to relegate religion to a newly defined private sphere of human endeavor, separate from politics.”12 The turn to rationalism that was characteristic of the Enlightenment tended to separate the Church from the nation. This influence, in turn, shifted people’s devotion from the Church to the idea of the patrie, or fatherland.