6 Bruce, Christian Origins, p. 192.

7 While ruling out the two-date approach to the governorship of Quirinius, Sherwin-White basically vindicates Luke’s account, while still finding more problems than does Bruce (pp. 162–171).

8 Vasilius Tzaferis, “Jewish Tombs At and Near Giv‘at ha-Mivtar,” Israel Exploration Journal20 (1970), pp. 38–59.

Still piercing his feet was a large nail about seven inches long that had been driven sideways through his heel bones, which indicates the direction in which the feet and legs were twisted in order to be attached to the cross. The nail pierced an acacia beam on the cross, which was anchored in the ground. Small pieces of wood still attached to the spike indicated that the beam itself was olive wood. The end of the nail was bent backwards toward the head due either to a knot in the wood or to purposeful bending.