After World War II, Europe was divided in two halves: a pro-American and Atlantist block on the one hand, and a Soviet-controlled and continental half on the other hand. Reconstruction in Western Europe was financed through the Marshall plan, in exchange for integrating NATO, an American-led military alliance formed in 1949, whose goal was to check Soviet imperialism. In 1955, Eastern European countries under Soviet rule are integrated into the Warsaw Pact, a military alliance created to rival NATO. Again, French europhilia comes to the fore when, in 1967, President De Gaulle withdraws his country from NATO’s command structure and develops its nuclear capabilities. Turning his back on the anglo-saxon world, De Gaulle embraces his visionary project for Europe, a continental Europe; he temporarily erases the Iron Curtain, advocates closer ties with Germany at first, and then with Russia to build his dream of Europe spanning from the Atlantic to the Ural. In 1960, Paris presents itself as European capital and launches a new attempt at building Europe. De Gaulle’s idea of a Paris-Berlin-Moscow axis, and the idea that Russia–then part of the Soviet Union–is fully European, appears even truer today.