When the German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann excavated the site of Mykenai in the late 19th century, he found amid an extraordinary series of royal graves a magnificent gold mask of a man. Schliemann announced to the world that he had gazed upon the face of Agamemnon, the “lord of men.” Later scientific analyses proved that the mask predated Agamemnon by several generations, but nevertheless Schliemann’s discoveries brought Homer’s Iliad squarely into the real world. The historical reality of the Trojan War was established.