Psychoanalysis best clarifies the connection between society and the individual, culture and personality, precisely when it confines itself to careful examination of individuals. It tells us most about society when it is least determined to do so. Freud’s extrapolation of psychoanalytic principles into anthropology, his­tory, and biography can be safely ignored by the student of soci­ety, but his clinical investigations constitute a storehouse of indis­pensable ideas, once it is understood that the unconscious mind represents the modification of nature by culture, the imposition of civilization on instinct.