The aristocratic element in the doctrine of courage was preserved as well as restricted by Aristotle. The motive for withstanding pain and death courageously is, according to him, that it is noble to do so and base not to do so (Nicomachean Ethics iii 9). The courageous man acts “for the sake of what is noble, for that is the aim of virtue” (iii. 7). “Noble,” in these and other passages, is the translation of kalos and “base” the translation of aischros, words which usually are rendered by “beautiful” and “ugly.” A beautiful or noble deed is a deed to be praised. Courage does what is to be praised and rejects what is to be despised.