77 St. John of Damascus, 1980, p. 64)
78 Ibid, p. 41.
79 Calian, 1968, p. 131. [quoting Philip Sherrard, “The Art of the Icon,” Series 4, No. 6 (1962), p. 295]
81 Clendenin, 1994, p. 85-93.
2. An image of God (the Father) was not only blasphemous, but also impossible. 3. The tent of meeting was very image oriented and was itself an image. Examples of the images included there were the cherubim, the serpent and the artistic craftsmanship of Bezalel and Oholiab. 4. God became a human body/image/icon in the person of Christ. 5. Not every Old Testament prescription is applicable for the New Testament church (e.g. circumcision, the sacrificial system, the Sabbath). And 6. The prohibition against images has been superceded by the image of Christ – God Himself.
Significant examples of the acceptable use of image in the Old Testament were considered. These included Jacob raising a stele to God, as a result of which he blessed him and promised him gifts (Gen 28:18), and Cherubim of gold made by Bezalel and Oholiab (Exod. 25:18-22). The people of Israel were “saved” by looking at the bronze serpent (Num. 21:9). This image in the Old Testament was not divine but inspirational, yet it had sacred power.82 According to Giakalis, the New Testament confirms and affirms the tradition of the Old Testament.83 This clearly demonstrated that, in the Old Teastment, “…objects made by human hands do exist for the service and glory of God.”84
In addition, the Seventh Ecumenical Council distinguished between absolute worship (for God alone) and relative worship (veneration), which is given to God but also to people, objects, etc. An example of this might be the honor a servant gives to his master or subject to his king.