He, too, left many writings, which reflect, as with emperor Manuel II, a mind ruled by virtue and wisdom. Below are excerpts from his writings. Plato would no doubt have found in him another model of a philosopher-king.


“It is in order to avoid confusion in undertakings by the people that they have a king rule over them. How, then, could a king hope to live up to the dignity expected of him as a ruler when he refuses to hear out his people when they bring to his attention injustices done to him?”