No nation-state did more to advance the cause of activist foreign policy than the Byzantine empire. For over 1,100 years it survived and expanded by skilfully manipulating opponents through its intricate diplomacy. Hundreds of years before Machiavelli, Byzantine historian, John Kinnamos, wrote: ‘Since many and various matters lead toward one end, victory, it is a matter of indifference which one uses to reach it’. An examination of Byzantine diplomatic tactics could help today’s diplomats understand the motivations of their counterparts at the negotiating table…