Through the intermediary of the family, social patterns reproduce themselves in personality. Social arrangements live on in the individual, buried in the mind below the level of consciousness, even after they have become objectively undesirable and unneces­sary—as many of our present arrangements are now widely ac­knowledged to have become. The perception of the world as a dangerous and forbidding place, though it originates in a realistic awareness of the insecurity of contemporary social life, receives reinforcement from the narcissistic projection of aggressive im­pulses outward. The belief that society has no future, while it rests on a certain realism about the dangers ahead, also incorpo­rates a narcissistic inability to identify with posterity or to feel one­self part of a historical stream.

The weakening of social ties, which originates in the prevail­ing state of social warfare, at the same time reflects a narcissistic defense against dependence. A warlike society tends to produce men and women who are at heart antisocial. It should therefore not surprise us to find that although the narcissist conforms to social norms for fear of external retribution, he often thinks of himself as an outlaw and sees others in the same way, “as basi­cally dishonest and unreliable, or only reliable because of external pressures.” “The value systems of narcissistic personalities are generally corruptible,” writes Kernberg, “in contrast to the rigid morality of the obsessive personality.”

The ethic of self-preservation and psychic survival is rooted, then, not merely in objective conditions of economic warfare, ris­ing rates of crime, and social chaos but in the subjective experi­ence of emptiness and isolation. It reflects the conviction—as much a projection of inner anxieties as a perception of the way things are—that envy and exploitation dominate even the most intimate relations. The cult of personal relations, which becomes increasingly intense, as the hope of political solutions recedes, conceals a thoroughgoing disenchantment with personal rela­tions, just as the cult of sensuality implies a repudiation of sen­suality in all but its most primitive forms. The ideology of per­sonal growth, superficially optimistic, radiates a profound despair and resignation. It is the faith of those without faith.