Socrates, and with him, Greek philosophy, is typically seen by us as an early rationalist, a kind of ancient precursor of the Enlightenment who criticized the gods (understand: religion and tradition) in order to discover rational truth (understand: a positivist scientific worldview). His most famous saying, “I only know that I know nothing” is often used to justify rejection of revealed religious dogma. This view of Socrates is largely the product of 18th century Enlightenment philosophers projecting contemporary intellectual development back onto Antiquity—perhaps in an attempt to anchor themselves in a historical tradition? A closer scrutiny of Socrates’ words and deeds, and descriptions of him by his contemporaries reveal that he was far from being an early rationalist rejecting the old religion and advocating a new, Cartesian-style positivist science trying to discover through reason the inner workings of the universe.