These projects served the broader purpose of European integration, but they overlooked critical flaws in the architecture of monetary union that need to be decisively addressed so that the euro fulfils its promise of economic prosperity and prevents Europe from slipping even more into division and discontent.

In order to do so, we have to launch an economic and social union by agreeing on a new, staged process of convergence that would involve not only structural reforms (labour, business environment) and institutional reforms (functioning of economic governance) but also social and tax convergence where necessary (consistent, though not necessarily equal, minimum wages, and a harmonised corporate tax).